Carol Dweck, a Social and Developmental Psychologist from Stanford, has developed a framework to aid our understanding of why some students (and, in fact, people in general,) fail to reach their potential while others go on to achieve amazing things.
Motivation is triggered by the perceived value or benefit of the academic content or task. Student involvement and commitment to learning increases when an instructor uses a variety of researched motivation techniques.
Instructional language refers to the frequency and quality of motivational and inclusive language used during class encourage students.
Research and Resources
A summary several fundamental frameworks and theories that undergird motivation and outcomes including attribution theory, incremental versus entity views of intelligence, and self determination theory.