Research and Resources
In the decades since Shulman’s initial work, increasing educational research, theory development, and consensus building have increased understanding of how instructors problem solve and make instructional and curricular decisions in the complex arena of face-to-face, hybrid, or online classrooms.
Recently, technology considerations have expanded PCK scholarship to include Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Herring, Koehler & Mishra, 2016), in which an instructor’s effective technology integration to support learning is recognized as an important factor in course design. Examples range from organizing course materials in the learning management system (Canvas) to minimize the cognitive energy students must spend navigating these materials to integrating e-texts that facilitate engagement with readings or adaptive courseware that provides individualized practice in problem solving.
Herring, M. C., Koehler, M. J. & Mishra, P. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Educators (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Magnusson, S. J., Borko, H., & Krajcik, J. S.(1999). Nature, sources, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. Lederman (Eds.), Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (pp. 95-132). Boston, MA: Kluwer Press.
Oleson, A. & Hora, M. T. (October 23, 2013). Teaching the way they were taught? Revisiting the sources of teaching knowledge and the role of prior experience in shaping faculty teaching practices. Higher Education. DOI 10.1007/s10734-013-9678-9
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, vol 15(2), pp. 4-14.